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16.00/16.01/16.04 Noise and Health, Part 2

Shooting noise annoyance in communities around German military training areas
Time: 8:20 am

Author: Dirk Schreckenberg

Abstract ID: 1997

Shooting noise is characterized as impulsive, intermittent sound with high energy and low frequencies. Studies have shown that for given average sound levels shooting noise is regarded as more annoying than transportation noise, particularly road traffic noise. In comparison to transportation noise, responses to shooting noise are less frequently studied. The latest published German studies on community responses to shooting noise were conducted in the 1980ies and 1990ies. The study presented in this contribution aims to provide new data on shooting noise responses in communities around military training areas. Annoyance responses were collected using a survey with 1043 residents living around three military training sites in Germany. For the address of each resident, on the basis of shooting training in the year 2019 the average continuous sound levels and the sound exposure levels for day and night-time with the frequency weightings A, C, and Z was estimated for grid cells of 250 x 250 m. Results on the exposure-response relationship between these noise metrics and the percentage of highly annoyed persons (%HA) are presented. Among others, the results indicate, that non-acoustic factors, particularly attitudes related to the source have a strong impact on the annoyance.

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Health impact assessment of road traffic noise in the EU in 2020-2035
Time: 12:00 pm

Author: Erik Salomons

Abstract ID: 2019

The negative health effects of road traffic noise in the EU are analyzed over the period 2020?2035. For a baseline scenario, with autonomous traffic growth and fleet development, it is found that the EU health burden in 2030 is equivalent to the loss of 1.7 million ‘healthy life years’. Various noise abatement scenarios are analyzed, with noise solutions such as quiet road surfaces, quiet tyres, and electric vehicles. The health benefits of the scenarios are calculated as health?burden differences from the baseline scenario. The calculation methodology is based on the noise exposure distributions reported in 2017 by EU member states, for urban agglomerations and for major roads. Changes in noise exposure are calculated with EU model Cnossos for vehicle emission, considering different types of roads (residential streets, main roads, motorways,…). The monetized health benefits are used as input for a cost?benefit analysis of the scenarios over the period 2020-2035. For quiet tyres, for example, high health benefits and low costs are found, resulting in a high cost-to-benefit ratio. This work was part of a study for the European Commision, exploring different options for reducing the EU health burden caused by noise from road, rail, and air traffic.

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Cardiovascular mortality and transportation noise: a prospective Swiss cohort study
Time: 12:20 pm

Author: Danielle Vienneau

Abstract ID: 2282

Transportation noise from road, rail and air traffic can be detrimental to health and wellbeing. Previous studies, including our own, have shown death from specific cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to be associated with these exposures. Now, with 15 years of follow-up, integrated address history and noise exposure data for multiple years corresponding to census decades, we conducted an extended analysis of the Swiss National Cohort. Mean exposure in 5-year periods were calculated, and three virtual sub-cohorts were defined (2001-2006, etc.) in addition to the full cohort (2001-2015). Multi-pollutant (Lden_road, Lden_rail, Lden_air), time dependent Cox proportional hazards models were applied to 4.14 million adults and adjusted for potential confounders and PM2.5. During the 15-year follow-up, there were 277,506 CVD and 34,200 myocardial infarction (MI) deaths. In the full cohort, there was an increased risk of death for road traffic (1.029 [1.024?1.034] CVD; 1.043 [1.029?1.058] MI per 10dB), railway (1.013 [1.010?1.017] CVD; 1.020 [1.010?1.030] MI) and aircraft noise (1.040 [1.020?1.060] MI). For road traffic noise, Hazard ratios (HR) were higher in males vs. females and in younger vs. older age groups. HRs were also remarkably consistent with our previous analysis with follow-up until 2008, and were relatively similar across the three virtual sub-cohorts.

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Integrating environmental noise considerations into public policy: the case of Ireland
Time: 1:00 pm

Author: Jon Faulkner

Abstract ID: 2340

European Commission Directive (EU) 2020/367 describes how harmful effects from environmental noise exposure are to be calculated for ischemic heart disease (IHD), high annoyance (HA), and high sleep disturbance (HSD) for road, rail, and aircraft noise under the Environmental Noise Directive’s (END) strategic noise mapping process. It represents a major development in understanding the extent of exposure from transport-based environmental noise  given it is a legal requirement for all EU member states from the 2022 reporting round. It also has the potential to accelerate the development of stronger noise-health policies across the EU. While this development is to be welcomed, there are a number of basic noise-health policy applications that first need to be implemented in the Irish case if the noise-health situation is be accurately assessed and if public health is to be adequately protected. In order to address this requirement the following paper presents concrete policy and practice recommendations as well as an evaluation of the current application of noise management policy in Ireland which is administered to protect the public from the harmful effects of environmental noise. This paper provides guidance on how noise-health considerations can be integrated into key relevant areas of Irish policy including healthcare, the environment, transportation, and planning.

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Association between noise annoyance and mental health outcomes – an evidence review
Time: 1:20 pm

Author: Xiangpu Gong

Abstract ID: 2354

To date, most reviews on noise and mental health have focused on noise exposure. However, a number of studies found associations between mental health and noise annoyance, but not with exposure. A literature search was carried out in PubMed and Web of Science databases. We also hand-searched conference proceedings and references in other systematic reviews on noise exposure and annoyance/mental health. We identified 25 articles through the databases searches that satisfied the inclusion criteria; existing literature reviews provided two additional publications. The majority of identified studies used either a 5-point (n=15) or 11-point scale (n=5) to measure noise annoyance. The sources of noise annoyance mainly come from traffic (n=18 or 67%), and neighbourhood (n=4 or 15%). For mental health outcomes, 20 (74%), 2 (7%) and 2 (7%) articles used validated questionnaires, self-reported use of anxiolytics/antidepressants, or self-reported diagnosis of mental disease, respectively, to assess mental health. Six articles differentiated between depression and anxiety disorder while 19 focused on general mental health. Results from these studies overall point to an adverse association of noise annoyance (high noise annoyance in particular) with depression, anxiety or general mental problem, either measured by self-reported diagnosis, self-reported medicine use or questionnaires.

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Annoyance from community and neighborhood noise during the COVID-19 lockdown in Serbia: a pilot study
Time: 11:40 am


Abstract ID: 2761

We present a pilot study on noise perception and annoyance related to community and neighborhood noise sources during the COVID-19 lockdown in Serbia, enforced from March 15 to May 6, 2020. The online anonymous survey was conducted using social network platforms. Respondents from all over the country, aged 15 to 75 years took part in the study. All participants worked or studied from their homes during the investigated period. Overall, during the lockdown, participants perceived less noise from the major community sources, such as road traffic, air traffic, and construction works on the streets; at the same time, they perceived more noise from their neighbors, such as noise from electrical appliances and elevators inside the buildings, as well as noise from humans (music, voices, steps) and animals. In addition, respondents more often perceived “new” community sounds, such as birds, church bells, and emergency vehicles. They found the sirens of emergency vehicles and noise from their neighbors most annoying at that time. Many participants changed their behavior and attitudes toward noise during the lockdown. Every sixth participant complained about neighborhood noise. This study points to the need for the improvement of the acoustic environment at home in the future.

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The test bench for the assessment of the impact of wind turbine noise on human performance
Time: 11:20 am

Author: Dariusz Pleban

Abstract ID: 2188

Among the factors related to the operation of wind farms, wind turbine noise has to be seen as a source of annoyance for both people living and working near wind farms.  A method and a test bench to conduct noise annoyance tests of different types of wind turbine noise in laboratory conditions have been developed. The test bench is based on a multi-channel sound reproducing system using the DANTE network (in which digital acoustic signals are broadcast over Ethernet) and is compiled in the acoustic test chamber. The test bench consists of 19 speakers, including 17 Avantone MixCube studio monitors and 2 LS600 woofers. During the tests a study subject is assessed in terms of efficiency and performance using a computer-based ALS test from the Vienna Test System. The paper describes the test method, the test bench and the results of the pilot studies carried out to assess the impact of wind turbine noise on human performance.

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Road traffic noise disease burden estimates for a model study of varying urban morphology cases
Time: 12:40 pm

Author: Jens Forssén

Abstract ID: 2359

For a model set of 31 different building morphologies in an urban setting, road traffic noise exposure has been calculated and analysed. For five of the building morphologies also vegetation surfaces on facades and roofs were studied. Facade exposures were analysed for both smaller (single-sided) flats and larger (floor-through) flats, considering the direct exposure from the roads as well as the non-direct exposure at noise-shielded positions like inner yards, applying a noise mapping software in combination with a prediction model for the non-direct exposure. Using noise indicators Lden and Lnight, the disease burden, in terms of DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) per person, was estimated and analysed, via predictions of annoyance and sleep disturbance. The resulting effects of varying the building morphology and adding vegetation are shown and discussed, including effects of a bonus model for flats having additional facade elements with lower noise exposure.

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Health effects related to wind turbine sound: A review
Time: 11:00 am

Author: Irene van Kamp

Abstract ID: 3088

Worldwide questions about health effects play a role in local debates about windfarms. A review was prepared for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment of the literature published since 2017 about the health-effects of wind turbine sound. Scientific literature was collected on the effect on annoyance, sleep disturbance, cardiovascular disease and metabolism. Also, visual annoyance and other non–acoustic factors, such as appraisal of the local decision making process were investigated. Annoyance came forward as a consequence of wind turbine sound: the louder the receiver sound level, the stronger the annoyance response. For other health effects, results of scientific research are inconsistent. Effect are not a consequence of the sound levels, but rather related to the residents’ annoyance.  The literature did not show that infrasound or low frequency sound leads to other effects when compared to sound at higher frequencies.  Evidence shows that residents experience less annoyance when they participate in the siting process. By being able to take part in the siting and in balancing costs and benefits, residents experience less annoyance. It is therefore important to take worries of local residents seriously and involve them in the process of planning and the siting of wind turbines.

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