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16.00/16.01/16.04 Noise and Health, Part 1

Shooting noise annoyance in communities around German military training areas
Time: 8:20 am

Author: Dirk Schreckenberg

Abstract ID: 1997

Shooting noise is characterized as impulsive, intermittent sound with high energy and low frequencies. Studies have shown that for given average sound levels shooting noise is regarded as more annoying than transportation noise, particularly road traffic noise. In comparison to transportation noise, responses to shooting noise are less frequently studied. The latest published German studies on community responses to shooting noise were conducted in the 1980ies and 1990ies. The study presented in this contribution aims to provide new data on shooting noise responses in communities around military training areas. Annoyance responses were collected using a survey with 1043 residents living around three military training sites in Germany. For the address of each resident, on the basis of shooting training in the year 2019 the average continuous sound levels and the sound exposure levels for day and night-time with the frequency weightings A, C, and Z was estimated for grid cells of 250 x 250 m. Results on the exposure-response relationship between these noise metrics and the percentage of highly annoyed persons (%HA) are presented. Among others, the results indicate, that non-acoustic factors, particularly attitudes related to the source have a strong impact on the annoyance.

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Health impact assessment of road traffic noise in the EU in 2020-2035
Time: 12:00 pm

Author: Erik Salomons

Abstract ID: 2019

The negative health effects of road traffic noise in the EU are analyzed over the period 2020?2035. For a baseline scenario, with autonomous traffic growth and fleet development, it is found that the EU health burden in 2030 is equivalent to the loss of 1.7 million ‘healthy life years’. Various noise abatement scenarios are analyzed, with noise solutions such as quiet road surfaces, quiet tyres, and electric vehicles. The health benefits of the scenarios are calculated as health?burden differences from the baseline scenario. The calculation methodology is based on the noise exposure distributions reported in 2017 by EU member states, for urban agglomerations and for major roads. Changes in noise exposure are calculated with EU model Cnossos for vehicle emission, considering different types of roads (residential streets, main roads, motorways,…). The monetized health benefits are used as input for a cost?benefit analysis of the scenarios over the period 2020-2035. For quiet tyres, for example, high health benefits and low costs are found, resulting in a high cost-to-benefit ratio. This work was part of a study for the European Commision, exploring different options for reducing the EU health burden caused by noise from road, rail, and air traffic.

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Cardiovascular mortality and transportation noise: a prospective Swiss cohort study
Time: 12:20 pm

Author: Danielle Vienneau

Abstract ID: 2282

Transportation noise from road, rail and air traffic can be detrimental to health and wellbeing. Previous studies, including our own, have shown death from specific cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to be associated with these exposures. Now, with 15 years of follow-up, integrated address history and noise exposure data for multiple years corresponding to census decades, we conducted an extended analysis of the Swiss National Cohort. Mean exposure in 5-year periods were calculated, and three virtual sub-cohorts were defined (2001-2006, etc.) in addition to the full cohort (2001-2015). Multi-pollutant (Lden_road, Lden_rail, Lden_air), time dependent Cox proportional hazards models were applied to 4.14 million adults and adjusted for potential confounders and PM2.5. During the 15-year follow-up, there were 277,506 CVD and 34,200 myocardial infarction (MI) deaths. In the full cohort, there was an increased risk of death for road traffic (1.029 [1.024?1.034] CVD; 1.043 [1.029?1.058] MI per 10dB), railway (1.013 [1.010?1.017] CVD; 1.020 [1.010?1.030] MI) and aircraft noise (1.040 [1.020?1.060] MI). For road traffic noise, Hazard ratios (HR) were higher in males vs. females and in younger vs. older age groups. HRs were also remarkably consistent with our previous analysis with follow-up until 2008, and were relatively similar across the three virtual sub-cohorts.

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Integrating environmental noise considerations into public policy: the case of Ireland
Time: 1:00 pm

Author: Jon Faulkner

Abstract ID: 2340

European Commission Directive (EU) 2020/367 describes how harmful effects from environmental noise exposure are to be calculated for ischemic heart disease (IHD), high annoyance (HA), and high sleep disturbance (HSD) for road, rail, and aircraft noise under the Environmental Noise Directive’s (END) strategic noise mapping process. It represents a major development in understanding the extent of exposure from transport-based environmental noise  given it is a legal requirement for all EU member states from the 2022 reporting round. It also has the potential to accelerate the development of stronger noise-health policies across the EU. While this development is to be welcomed, there are a number of basic noise-health policy applications that first need to be implemented in the Irish case if the noise-health situation is be accurately assessed and if public health is to be adequately protected. In order to address this requirement the following paper presents concrete policy and practice recommendations as well as an evaluation of the current application of noise management policy in Ireland which is administered to protect the public from the harmful effects of environmental noise. This paper provides guidance on how noise-health considerations can be integrated into key relevant areas of Irish policy including healthcare, the environment, transportation, and planning.

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Association between noise annoyance and mental health outcomes – an evidence review
Time: 1:20 pm

Author: Xiangpu Gong

Abstract ID: 2354

To date, most reviews on noise and mental health have focused on noise exposure. However, a number of studies found associations between mental health and noise annoyance, but not with exposure. A literature search was carried out in PubMed and Web of Science databases. We also hand-searched conference proceedings and references in other systematic reviews on noise exposure and annoyance/mental health. We identified 25 articles through the databases searches that satisfied the inclusion criteria; existing literature reviews provided two additional publications. The majority of identified studies used either a 5-point (n=15) or 11-point scale (n=5) to measure noise annoyance. The sources of noise annoyance mainly come from traffic (n=18 or 67%), and neighbourhood (n=4 or 15%). For mental health outcomes, 20 (74%), 2 (7%) and 2 (7%) articles used validated questionnaires, self-reported use of anxiolytics/antidepressants, or self-reported diagnosis of mental disease, respectively, to assess mental health. Six articles differentiated between depression and anxiety disorder while 19 focused on general mental health. Results from these studies overall point to an adverse association of noise annoyance (high noise annoyance in particular) with depression, anxiety or general mental problem, either measured by self-reported diagnosis, self-reported medicine use or questionnaires.

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Annoyance from community and neighborhood noise during the COVID-19 lockdown in Serbia: a pilot study
Time: 11:40 am


Abstract ID: 2761

We present a pilot study on noise perception and annoyance related to community and neighborhood noise sources during the COVID-19 lockdown in Serbia, enforced from March 15 to May 6, 2020. The online anonymous survey was conducted using social network platforms. Respondents from all over the country, aged 15 to 75 years took part in the study. All participants worked or studied from their homes during the investigated period. Overall, during the lockdown, participants perceived less noise from the major community sources, such as road traffic, air traffic, and construction works on the streets; at the same time, they perceived more noise from their neighbors, such as noise from electrical appliances and elevators inside the buildings, as well as noise from humans (music, voices, steps) and animals. In addition, respondents more often perceived “new” community sounds, such as birds, church bells, and emergency vehicles. They found the sirens of emergency vehicles and noise from their neighbors most annoying at that time. Many participants changed their behavior and attitudes toward noise during the lockdown. Every sixth participant complained about neighborhood noise. This study points to the need for the improvement of the acoustic environment at home in the future.

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Using noise control principles when evaluating the acoustic impacts of face coverings during the coronavirus pandemic
Time: 7:40 pm

Author: Richard Ruhala

Abstract ID: 2451

Several different combinations of face masks and shields are evaluated for their acoustic performance using a head and torso simulator (HATS).  The HATS is used as a controlled and repeatable artificial sound source using white noise in a classroom environment.  Sound pressure levels at octave band frequencies due to the face coverings are evaluated at a location of 2.0 meters from the HATS which is within the direct field to reduce the room acoustical effects.  The problem is modeled as a barrier separating a source and receiver using fundamental noise control principles.  Fabric material properties are used such as thickness, density, stiffness, and damping.  The results are compared with experimental tests.  The face shield with clear plastic barrier produces a resonance in the 1000 Hz octave band.  Analytical models of cavity resonances, standing wave resonances, or plate resonances are calculated and compared with the experimental resonance. The speech interference level is used to determine the frequency content that is most likely to cause hearing difficulties and compared with A-weighted differences between the unmasked condition and masked.

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Relationship between noise-induced annoyance and age based on data of previous literatures
Time: 8:40 pm

Author: Ke Ni

Abstract ID: 2513

Many studies have investigated subjective responses to noise, but few concerned about the influence of age on the annoyance (discomfort) caused by noise. It is difficult to get a quantitative model featuring the relationship between noise-induced annoyance and age from one or several laboratory studies due to relatively small samples and limited age groups. This paper investigated recent studies (published after the year 2000) on noise-induced annoyance by the literature review method. We classified the studies according to their employed noise types and summarized the quantified subjective values and the ranges of age. The quantitative values of annoyance obtained from variable rating scales were transferred to a uniform scale and normalized. A probability density function then figured out the corresponding annoyance of a certain age under the small sample -distribution assumption. A predicting model of noise-induced annoyance from the age of 7–55 was proposed, which fitted previous data well.

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Vibroacoustics in Science and Music
Time: 8:00 pm

Author: Alejandra Bronfman

Abstract ID: 3020

In 2001 the band Cornucopia  (Puerto Rican musicians Jorge Castro and Claudio Chea) released an album called “Vibroacústica”. The title refers to a disease that allegedly afflicts people who have been exposed to loud noise over long periods of time. The vibrations thicken the walls of the heart, so the theory goes, and damage the immune, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems. This is noise as toxin, entering and sickening the body. The album takes the disease as its point of departure, and using location recordings of the coast of Puerto Rico, analog synthetic manipulations and digital processing, both recreates and protests the noise and its impact on human beings in Vieques, Puerto Rico, which was the target of bombing practice for over sixty years. This paper argues that the album subverts the idea of the preservation of a soundscape and instead reinterprets the sonic violence of occupation with the tweets, chirps and burbles of its soundtracks.

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Change in the self-reported health status of residents associated with the reduced aircraft noise around Tan Son Nhat Airport after the epidemic outbreak
Time: 8:20 pm

Author: Bach Lien Trieu

Abstract ID: 3128

The change in the self-reported health status of residents associated with the reduced aircraft noise around Tan Son Nhat airport (TSN) after the epidemic outbreak in early 2020 was investigated in three stages. Stage 1 is pre-outbreak when the airport was operating at its highest capacity. Phases 2 and 3 are three months and six months after the stop of international flight operation implemented in March 2020. Data on the residents’ health status was obtained from face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire items were composed of Noise annoyance questions using the 11-point ICBEN scale, the Total Health Index, Health and lifestyle questionnaire, Depression Scale revised questionnaire, and questionnaires to identify insomnia, hypertension, and hearing loss. Other factors related to living conditions such as education, income, or housing were also collected as health adjustment factors. The noise levels of phases 2 and 3 were estimated by updating the noise contour map of phase 1 using the TSN airport’s operation data in corresponding periods in 2020. This study provided evidence relating to variation of the residents’ health status due to the noise situation change.

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