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15.15 Exposure-Response Functions for Community Noise & the Effect of Non-Acoustic Factors

Soundscape composition analysis combined with acoustics and musicology: a case study on the music piece of Daybreaking
Time: 7:40 am

Author: Zhiyong DENG

Abstract ID: 1654

With its own unique musical vocabulary oundscape composition has been unprecedently developed all over the world. The analysis of music s from the perspective of acoustics has its own advantages that cannot be replaced by the traditional musicology. Based on  music  named Dayb for a hope to overcome COVID-19, this paper analyzes the acoustic elements of , frequency spectrum and waveform. Combined with the traditional musicology, it can show that the undulation of waveform has associated with the formal structure and the visualization of music. The frequency spectrum shows that as the climax of the piece, the sound has a high energy in the range of 300-1000Hz, which is one of the extremely sensitive frequency ranges for human. The composer not only skillfully integrates the chanting of monks with the complex environmental sounds, but also reflects the innovative composition skills. The change of  from weak to strong or contrarily is also in line with the emotional expression, that is, the core idea of moving from nature to nature. Since soundscape c retains more information, it is easier to immerse the audience in the listening process and appreciate the beautiful hope rather than the difficulty of understanding it.

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An interdisciplinary sound classification framework for environmental sound design
Time: 12:00 pm

Author: Kivanc Kitapci

Abstract ID: 1761

One of the objectives of architectural design is to create multi-sensory environments. The users are under the influence of a wide variety and intense perceptual data flow when users experience a designed space. Architects and environmental designers should not ignore the sense of hearing, one of the most important of the five primitive senses that allow us to experience the physical environment within the framework of creative thinking from the first stage of the design process. Today, auditory analysis of spaces has been studied under architectural acoustics, soundscapes, multi-sensory interactions, and sense of place. However, the current sound design methods implemented in the film and video game industries and industrial design have not been used in architectural design practices. Sound design is the art and application of making soundtracks in various disciplines and it involves recognizing, acquiring, or developing of auditory components. This research aims to establish a holistic architectural sound design framework based on the previous sound classification and taxonomic models found in the literature. The proposed sound design framework will help the architects and environmental designers classify the sound elements in the built environment and provide holistic environmental sound design guidelines depending on the spaces' functions and context.

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A research on assessment of soundscape in urban area by means of Caption Evaluation Method: effects of context on evaluation of soundscape
Time: 8:20 am

Author: Takeshi Akita

Abstract ID: 2755

Caption Evaluation Method is a technique that was developed in Japan to learn about the reason of evaluation of landscape. The investigative method is a formalized one and can show the element of landscape that a person focused on when he made an evaluation of the landscape, and the reason why he made a good or bad evaluation on it. In the present research, Caption Evaluation Method is applied to the survey of soundscape in urban area. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to walk along the predetermined route, and to take a picture and make evaluation of soundscape when they found out sound that attracted their attention. They rated the sound as good, bad or normal, and they reported the character and impression of it by formalized questionnaire. As a result, one hundred fifty-seven sound elements were obtained. They were classified under the proposed way in the previous research. Results show that traffic noise is assessed bad by almost all the people because of its noisy character, but sound from information display system receives different assessment among people. It is supposed that evaluation of not so noisy sound can be easily affected by the context in a person’s mind.

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Physiological and psychological responses to soundscapes and their connections using machine learning
Time: 8:40 am

Author: Ming Yang

Abstract ID: 2891

Acoustic environment has significant impacts on humans’ feelings and emotions, cognitive performance, and behaviours. It evokes both physiological and psychological responses, which in the long term affect physical and mental health. It has been long believed that physiological and psychological responses are interconnected, yet their correlations are complex and may vary among conditions and studies. This present research study explores the physiological and psychological responses at the exposure to acoustic environment in a short period of time, and examines whether the physiological responses are able to predict the psychological responses. In this research, the physiological and psychological responses of subjects to a set of soundscapes are collected in a laboratory setting, by respectively continuous physiological measurements and self-report ratings on subjective experiences. The connections between the physiological and psychological responses are examined using machine learning methods. The results show the connections between physiological and psychological responses to soundscape. To a certain degree, it is able to predict the psychological responses from the measured physiological responses.

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Soundscape assessment of non-acoustic factors for effective stakeholder engagement in airport expansion projects in the UK
Time: 8:00 am

Author: Lisa Lavia

Abstract ID: 2976

Effective soundscape planning, in accordance with the ISO soundscape standard series, is predicated on accurately assessing the human response to sound in context. ccurately assess the human response for this purpose requires the identification of context specific non-acoustic factors (NAFs). In particular, the NAF of stakeholders’ perceived control over sound from developments directly impacts the effectiveness of engagement in planning processes. However, what constitutes perceived control can vary widely, including stakeholders' experiences, perceptions and requirements in context. Perceived control affect quality of life and therefore it is a factor in sustainable planning and development processes. This primarily qualitative constructivist grounded theory study investigates the NAFs comprising stakeholders’ perceived control and the impact on effective engagement in the context of planning and soundscape management for airport expansion projects in the UK. The initial stages of this research included participant observation and 1:1 interviews. Preliminary findings indicate context specific discrete aspects regarding communication quality (as distinct from quantity) as intrinsic to developing, supporting and maintaining perceived control amongst stakeholders. This research builds on existing soundscape and noise and health findings to develop a conceptual framework for effective stakeholder engagement for standardised soundscape design and planning in the built environment.

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Annoyance due to road traffic noise: an attempt to describe the effects of non-acoustic factors
Time: 7:40 am

Author: Truls Gjestland

Abstract ID: 1296

The annoyance response is traditionally presented as the percentage of people highly annoyed as a function of the noise exposure, DNL, or similar. It is, however, a well-known fact that the noise level per se only explains about one-third of the variance of the annoyance response. An analysis based on the Community Tolerance Level, CTL, quantifies the combined effect of all non-acoustic factors, but does not explain the effect of each individual one. The paper is an attempt to separately quantify the effect of different non-acoustic factors.

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Shooting noise annoyance in communities around German military training areas
Time: 8:20 am

Author: Dirk Schreckenberg

Abstract ID: 1997

Shooting noise is characterized as impulsive, intermittent sound with high energy and low frequencies. Studies have shown that for given average sound levels shooting noise is regarded as more annoying than transportation noise, particularly road traffic noise. In comparison to transportation noise, responses to shooting noise are less frequently studied. The latest published German studies on community responses to shooting noise were conducted in the 1980ies and 1990ies. The study presented in this contribution aims to provide new data on shooting noise responses in communities around military training areas. Annoyance responses were collected using a survey with 1043 residents living around three military training sites in Germany. For the address of each resident, on the basis of shooting training in the year 2019 the average continuous sound levels and the sound exposure levels for day and night-time with the frequency weightings A, C, and Z was estimated for grid cells of 250 x 250 m. Results on the exposure-response relationship between these noise metrics and the percentage of highly annoyed persons (%HA) are presented. Among others, the results indicate, that non-acoustic factors, particularly attitudes related to the source have a strong impact on the annoyance.

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The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the noise pollution: case study in the city of Skopje
Time: 8:00 am

Author: Simona Domazetovska

Abstract ID: 2047

The lockdown that the city of Skopje has suffered during the months of April to June 2020 in order to control the spread of COVID-19 has significantly changed the acoustic environment in the urban parts of the city. The absence of vehicles, people on the streets and closed restaurants has led to a noise reduction captured by the low-cost wireless sensor network in the City of Skopje. The analysis carried out in this paper show reduction in noise pollution strongly correlated with the population's activity and behavior to the new circumstances. Overall, the sound pressure levels vary around 65 dB; however, some extreme decrease can be noticed, especially during the quarantine weekends. Also, the noise levels were compared between the same time periods during the year of 2019 and 2020, where it can be perceived reduction in the sound level for 36,5% for the day-evening-night noise level indicator (L). Significant variations occur for the indicators L, L, and L, especially during the lockdown weekends.

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Monte Carlo method for uncertainty evaluation of noise annoyance prevalence
Time: 8:40 am

Author: Ricardo Luis d Avila Villela

Abstract ID: 2563

When a decision-making process relies on the information provided by a measurement or simulation result, the right decision demands a good quality result, in other words, a low uncertainty result. In order to establish public policies for environmental noise control, it is essential to identify the impact of each type of noise pollution (e.g. road, aircraft and rail transportation noise) on the population affected. One of the noise impact metrics that can be used is the number of highly noise annoyed people in a region whose estimated value is obtained from the corresponding exposure-response function and noise and population density maps. However, an estimated value of the noise impact metric with high uncertainty makes it difficult to realize the actual severity of the problem and its priority in relation to other public health issues. In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation method is used to assess the uncertainty of a noise impact metric result, namely the number of people highly disturbed by road noise in a city. This article also presents a sensitivity analysis of uncertainty sources that allows quantification of the main uncertainty components, which supports improvements in noise impact metric results.

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Effects of the reduction of aircraft noise emission due to the travel restriction during the COVID-19 pandemic at residential areas around Tan Son Nhat Airport
Time: 7:20 am

Author: Thulan Nguyen

Abstract ID: 2972

The travel restrictions caused by the epidemic outbreak in early 2020 worldwide have caused many changes in all aspects of life, especially in the acoustic environment. This study examines the impact of this environmental change at Tan Son Nhat International Airport (TSN), the largest airport in Vietnam, by comparing the situations before and after the airport stopped operating all international flights in March 2020. The after-the-change survey was conducted in 2 phases, June and September 2020, three months and six months after the stop decision. The number of flights observed in August 2019 was 728; this number is 413 and 299 for the two surveys in 2020. The range of noise levels estimated for 12 sites around TSN decreased from 63-81 dB in 2019 to 32-67 dB in June 2020 and 33-69 dB in September 2020. At the same aircraft noise level, the percentage of highly annoyed (% HA) and the percentage of insomnia (%ISM) in the 2020 survey are higher than those in the 2019 survey. The comparison results of reaction to noise before and after the TSN's noise change indicated an increase in negative responses to noise might happen in the increased noise and reduced noise situation.

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