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14.06 Urban Sound Planning

Relation between soundscape and spatial configuration in different urban contexts
Time: 12:40 pm

Author: Giacomo Salvadori

Abstract ID: 1834

During the last decade, the problem of noise pollution has continued to increase in Europe as well as in under-developed countries. This issue is stressed in city centers, owing to the abundance of residential activities, vehicle traffic and multiple services. This study investigates the relationship between urban spatial configuration and environment soundscape in two different areas: Pisa historic center, Italy and Biskra downtown, Algeria, using the potential of Space Syntax theory in predicting noise levels distribution. For this analysis, thirty stations of measurements were held in each area during day time using a Sound Level Meter. A Noise map was modeled using the interpolation tool provided by a Geographic Information System program, while the collected data were correlated with the Angular Segment Analysis variables. The findings reveal a close relationship between the sound levels obtained and Space Syntax theory global and local indexes such as Normalized Choice and Integration, which signifies the ability of the approach in describing the sound phenomenon in different urban contexts.

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Further investigation on pockets of quiet within historical city centres: the case of widenings
Time: 1:00 pm

Author: Massimiliano Masullo

Abstract ID: 2296

Making available quiet zones for the urban population is a key factor to offer them the possibility to have restorative experiences and relief from stressful city life. Although these zones are often associated with vast green parks, the latter are usually located outside or far from cities' centres. Moreover, if we consider the case of historical city centres, they are almost absent. In previous research, we have focused on searching for alternative quiet spaces that inhabitants and tourists could use as a temporary refuge from urban noise and chaos. In these studies, we have shown that thanks to their acoustics peculiarities and several other non-acoustic characteristics, the cloisters and the courts of historic buildings have a high potential to induce restoration. Nevertheless, among the narrow streets of the historic cities centres, the widenings can also provide a small contribution to a temporary restoration of people. This paper investigates the restorative potentiality of these further spaces and compares the outcomes carried out from binaural recordings and in situ interviews with those of cloisters and courts of historic buildings within the ancient city centre of Naples.

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Road traffic noise disease burden estimates for a model study of varying urban morphology cases
Time: 12:40 pm

Author: Jens Forssén

Abstract ID: 2359

For a model set of 31 different building morphologies in an urban setting, road traffic noise exposure has been calculated and analysed. For five of the building morphologies also vegetation surfaces on facades and roofs were studied. Facade exposures were analysed for both smaller (single-sided) flats and larger (floor-through) flats, considering the direct exposure from the roads as well as the non-direct exposure at noise-shielded positions like inner yards, applying a noise mapping software in combination with a prediction model for the non-direct exposure. Using noise indicators Lden and Lnight, the disease burden, in terms of DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) per person, was estimated and analysed, via predictions of annoyance and sleep disturbance. The resulting effects of varying the building morphology and adding vegetation are shown and discussed, including effects of a bonus model for flats having additional facade elements with lower noise exposure.

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Air-cooled chiller screening noise analysis with preliminary building project information
Time: 1:40 pm

Author: Mark Storm

Abstract ID: 2939

For Inter-noise 2018, the author submitted a paper proposing techniques to derive reasonable preliminary estimates of building project stationary noise emission levels from sparse but available data that may seem unrelated to noise or vibration such as gross square footage (GSF), expected occupancy, and land use or function. Results from these predictions would be used to support or refine established buffer distances between exposed outdoor heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system noise sources and nearby noise-sensitive receptors, helping planners tasked with ambitious infill or growth goals better fit building projects into complicated campus development puzzles. This paper provides supplemental guidance by linking the same preliminary building project GSF, occupancy, and function information to estimates of cooling load (expressed as refrigeration tonnage) and thus an additional HVAC consideration not discussed in the author’s previous study. When such refrigeration relies upon air-cooled condensers installed outdoors on building rooftops or at grade, substantial noise sources are introduced to the environment. Thus, this new study shares data and methodology to help expand the value and utility of the previous work and potentially provide more comprehensive building HVAC noise estimates for use by building developers and planners.

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An initiation to revive the unique sound of Indonesian cities
Time: 8:00 pm

Author: Christina Eviutami Mediastika

Abstract ID: 3261

As a large country with thousands of ethnic groups and cultures, it is hoped that every city in Indonesia will have its uniqueness. However, preliminary data collected from 10 major cities in Indonesia shows no uniqueness. The most visited public places in these cities, i.e. parks and squares, which are generally associated with natural sounds, are dominated by human and traffic noise. Surprisingly, a noisy acoustic environment is not considered a nuisance. The study reported here looks for reasons why people ignore the noise. An online questionnaire developed using a 5-point Likert scale was distributed to collect data due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Five hundred and ninety-five respondents participated in the survey. ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis test were run to identify differences between soundscape dimensions and differences in soundscape attribute ratings, respectively. The data shows that Indonesians visit public places for communal or social activities, which are triggered by the attractiveness of the places and the types of activities they can participate in. It is the reason why noise is not considered a nuisance. Pleasantness and eventfulness are the two dominant soundscape dimensions found in this study. In the Indonesian context, pleasure correlates with events. Eventfulness is associated with the number of people and their activities in public places. However, in most of the cities surveyed, eventfulness scores were low when they were unable to engage in the events held in public places. They visit public places based on the attractiveness of the place and the activities, and they feel comfortable in noisy public places when they can be involved in the activity. Once people become attached to communal activities in public places, the pleasantness dimension also exists. Thus, two things need to be considered to improve the acoustic environment of cities in Indonesia. First is by reducing traffic noise to increase the dimensions of eventfulness by using attractive attractions in public places. Second is to investigate the types of attractions that are of interest, if possible, is to restore local culture with its unique sound to build a unique city soundscape. In this study, participants identified the uniqueness of sounds in public places by using sounds that could not be classified as unique such as the voice of and the music played by street vendors.

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Acoustic balance between highway and metro: a case study of Dos Hermanas
Time: 1:20 pm

Author: Gabriel Piza

Abstract ID: 3553

With the Directive 2002/49 of the European Parliament, commitments are established for the control of noise pollution for member countries. Based on such determination, an important tool for the noise pollution control is the noise map, which represents an area or its population exposed to different ranges of noise. The same Directive defines that environmental noise is influenced by different sources, including transport routes such as road traffic and the subway. This study evaluates the acoustic balance between the Sevilla metro and the A-376 highway traffic. For such assessment, different mobility scenarios have been developed and all of them have been evaluated using noise maps. A residential block in Dos Hermanas, a town in Sevilla province, has been taken as a case study. According to the evaluated scenarios, the population affected by high level noises decreases as the metro is more used than the highway.

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