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14.03 Noise Barriers

Insertion loss (IL) of finite sound barriers of different contours – An introduction to geometrical solutions in 3-D space
Time: 11:40 am

Author: Giora Rosenhouse

Abstract ID: 1324

The design of finite sound barriers noise sources and control points requires calculations beyond those that are used when the Maekawa formula is applied, since the problem involves polygon sd barriers located in various possible orientations in 3D space. We present here some means that are linked to basic mathematical geometrical tools. Those means are relatively simple, as compared to the physical formulation of the relevant diffraction solutions for sound barriers (e.g. Rosenhouse, 2019, 2020). Such calculations can apply algebraic, trigonometric or vector analysis and their combinations to define the geometries of barrier IL. This approach includes the location of the sources and control points, which are essential as data for finding IL and other issues of environmental acoustics. We will show solutions including results of IL for a common rectangular barrier, as compared to IL of a barrier with a sloped top and side, among other possibilities.

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Analysis of the interaction of helmholtz resonators in periodic acoustic metamaterials depending on its orientation with the acoustic source.
Time: 1:20 pm

Author: David Ramírez

Abstract ID: 1369

Acoustic screens based on sonic crystals constitute one of the most promising technological bets of recent years in the field of environmental acoustics. Sonic crystals are defined as new materials formed by arrays of acoustic scatterers embedded in air. The design of these screens is made using powerful simulation models that provide reliable results without the need of expensive experimental testing. This project applies the finite elements method in order to analise an acoustic barrier that includes (Helmholtz) resonators in its scatterers, and studies the interference of the sonic crystal with the effect of the Helmholtz resonator, depending on its orientation with the acoustic source.

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Design of noise barriers for the mitigation of construction noise
Time: 11:00 am

Author: Heow Pueh Lee

Abstract ID: 1628

Noise pollution is a major problem in many major cities in particular a small island state like Singapore with residential buildings very close to the major trunk roads and expressways. The problem is aggravated by the ongoing city redevelopment and construction of new mass rapid transit lines. Construction noise is therefore a common theme of public complaints and therefore there is an increased interest in the development of more effective mitigation measure for construction noise. In this work, a Flat-tip jagged-edge profile was investigated and applied on the edge of a cantilever (slanted up for 45 degrees, facing the noise source) which was mounted at the top of a passive noise barrier. Besides the numerical simulations, the full sized prototypes were also experimentally tested on a construction sites with noise generated by a boring machine. Both numerical simulations and experimental results showed that this barrier with a slanted Flat-tip jagged cantilever would perform better than the traditional barrier having a Straight-edge cantilever of same height, with a maximum additional attenuation of 5.0 dBA experimentally obtained. The barrier with slanted Flat-tip jagged cantilever could also extend the shadow zone behind the barrier to higher levels of the building.

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A FEM/Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral model for noise diffractors on low height noise barriers
Time: 12:40 pm

Author: Ysbrand Wijnant

Abstract ID: 1846

So-called noise diffractors are a novel way to reduce traffic noise. As opposed to blocking or absorbing noise, diffractors bend noise in an upward direction, creating a shadow zone of reduced noise levels behind the diffractor. The diffraction is most effectively induced by quarter-wavelength resonators. The resonators can be placed in the ground but can also be mounted on top of a (low height) noise barrier, which provides additional reduction. In this paper, we describe a finite element/Helmholtz integral model for a diffractor mounted on a low height noise barrier. The finite element model is used to calculate the scattered acoustic field in the proximity of the diffractor for a noise source sufficiently far away from the diffractor. The acoustic pressure and particle velocity on the outer boundary of the finite element domain are subsequently used in the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral formulation to evaluate the acoustic field in the far field. The major benefit of this approach is a large reduction of the model size and reduced calculation times. This allows us to assess the reduction values at different barrier heights, larger distance from source to diffractor and larger distances from diffractor to evaluation points, with an example shown for highway traffic noise.

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Additional noise reduction with diffracting elements on barriers: experimental testing
Time: 12:20 pm

Author: Wout Schwanen

Abstract ID: 2194

The noise reduction of a (low) noise barrier can be enhanced by using an additional element with quarter-wavelength resonators with varying depths. The so-called WHISwall or WHIStop deflects sound upwards for specific frequencies creating an additional sound reduction. Different experiments on the WHISwall and WHIStop are performed as input for model validation. The development and validation of the model are described in a separate paper. In this paper the measurement campaign and its results are presented. We performed measurements on two setups. The first setup consists of a 1.1 meter high WHISwall, a 1.1m high noise barrier and a reference section (without noise measure). Measurements have been conducted with both an artificial sound source and pass by measurements with light and heavy motor vehicles. In a second  test setup, the WHIStop was placed on top of a 4 meter high noise barrier and the diffraction was determined according the European standard EN 1793-4.

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SOPRANOISE – update and analysis of noise barrier database including new current results
Time: 11:20 am

Author: Marco Conter

Abstract ID: 2302

In the frame of the SOPRANOISE project (funded by CEDR in the Transnational Road Research Programme 2018) work package 2 focused first on providing theoretical and practical background information on measurement of the acoustic performance of noise barriers due to a state-of-the-art regarding correlations and possible trends between diffuse (EN 1793-1, EN 1793-2) and direct sound field methods (EN 1793-5, EN 1793-6). After that, the objective of this research was to extend and update the database of the European noise barrier market developed during the QUIESST project, including more detailed analyses on single-number ratings as well as third-octave band measurement results. The data collected and the analysis performed show relevant facts and figures about acoustic performances of noise barriers measured under diffuse and direct sound field conditions, together with a better understanding of the respective significance, similarities and differences of these standardized methods, improving data analysis and correlations between these methods. This paper gives a general overview of the data collected, summarising the main results of the statistical analyses performed. Overall results and comparisons between results of measurements performed under diffuse and under direct sound field conditions are shown. Finally, conclusions and possible outlook of the research are presented.

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Additional noise reduction with diffracting elements on barriers using numerical and standard calculation methods
Time: 12:00 pm

Author: Frits van der Eerden

Abstract ID: 2310

The noise reduction of a (low) barrier can be enhanced by using an additional element with quarter-wavelength resonators with varying depths. A so-called Whiswall or WHIStop deflects sound upwards for specific frequencies. Measurements for a 1.1 meter high Whiswall and for a 1.1m barrier are compared in a separate paper. The enhanced barrier effect is measured at a short distance behind the barrier, for several situations. In this paper these measurements are compared with the results of a numerical finite element model (FEM) to validate this model. Next, the noise reduction is calculated at long ranges, up to 600 meters, for different point-to-point scenarios representative for road and rail traffic. A numerical parabolic equation method (PE) is coupled to the FEM model and a representative downwind condition is taken into account. The results at longer distance are used to design an engineering method for the enhanced barrier effect that can be used in standard noise calculation models, such as the Dutch national calculation model (SRM2) or the ISO 9613-2 standard.

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Characterizing noise barriers: SOPRANOISE half-term progress report
Time: 11:00 am

Author: Jean-Pierre Clairbois

Abstract ID: 2485

SOPRANOISE targets simplified assessment of the in-situ intrinsic acoustic performances of road / railway noise barriers. This paper presents its half-term progress. The research is divided in 5 Work Packages, the scientific ones being WP2 to WP5.WP2 is about establishing a state of art (SoA) of the intrinsic performances characterization: it is now finished and presented in 2 other papers by Conter and Fuchs. WP3 is about in-situ inspection tools: based on a review / questionnaire, an inspection protocol has been developed allowing simplified assessments mainly based on visual inspections and characterization of possible defects; WP3 is now in its final testing phase. WP4 is about designing a brand new “quick and safe methods” that could take place “in between” the inspection tools and the standardized EN1793-5 and 6; the research and development phases of WP4 are now finished, while its validation along highways is now scheduled. Finally, WP5 is about the use of noise barriers in the European market and the final report: a synthesis on the physical behavior of noise barriers and the physical significance of the test methods has been done, as well a SoA on the effective use of noise barriers; the results will be presented.

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Broadband noise mitigation using coupled Helmholtz resonators: a numerical study
Time: 1:00 pm

Author: Mariia Krasikova

Abstract ID: 2573

In this work we investigate a periodic structure in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 5500 Hz designed for broadband noise insulation. The considered unit cell consists of a simple structure: a pair of polymer pipes with slits carved along the axes, representing two coupled Helmholtz resonators. In order to develop a design with a broad band gap, we analyze the eigenmodes of the infinite two-dimensional structure considering their symmetry and interaction. This analysis is supported by parametric optimization of the resonator geometry. The obtained band diagram is compared with numerically determined transmission coefficient of a finite structure based on the same unit cell. The number of unit cells of the finite structure is chosen to be sufficient for demonstration of insulating properties and stop band formation. Furthermore, we analyze how the transmission coefficient is linked to the pressure field distribution inside the resonators. Owing to the simplicity of the geometry, the obtained results may become a basis for development of budget-friendly passive systems for broadband noise insulation within the audible range of frequencies.

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