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12.01 Algorithms and Hardware for Active Noise Control

Global feedforward active noise control using a linearly constrained loudspeaker beamformer and a sensor interpolation approach
Time: 7:00 am

Author: Yicheng Hsu

Abstract ID: 1472

The key issue of three-dimensional active noise control (3D ANC) problems is that global control is generally difficult, given limited number of discrete sensors. In this paper, feedforward multi-channel ANC approach is proposed to circumvent this difficulty. In view of the model-matching principle and multiple secondary sources, an underdetermined multi-channel inverse filtering (UMIF) system is formulated. With this UMIF system as a design constraint, a cost function is introduced to minimize the noise energy at a large number of control points. This linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) proves effective in broadening the controlled area in a 3D space. Optimal deployment of control points and the regularization terms of LCMV approach are also examined. To implement the proposed ANC system in a non-freefield environment, sensor interpolation can be used to find the frequency response between control points and loudspeakers, with plane wave decomposition and some room response measurements. The proposed ANC system has been implemented on a six-element linear loudspeaker array. Simulation and experiment results have demonstrated that the propose approach has yielded significant noise reduction performance in a large control area.

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A conjugate gradient least square based method for sound field control
Time: 7:20 pm

Author: Pierangelo Libianchi

Abstract ID: 1736

In sound field control, a set of control sources is used to match the pressure field generated by noise sources but with opposite phase to reduce the total sound pressure level in a defined area commonly referred to as dark zone. This is usually an ill-posed problem. The approach presented here employs a subspace iterative method where the number of iterations acts as the regularization parameter and controls unwanted side radiation, i.e. side lobes. More iterations lead to less regularization and more side lobes. The number of iterations is controlled by problem-specific stopping criteria. Simulations show the increase of lobing with increased number of iterations. The solutions are analysed through projections on the basis provided by the source strength modes corresponding to the right singular vector of the transfer function matrix. These projections show how higher order pressure modes (left singular vectors) become dominant with larger number of iterations. Furthermore, an active-set type method provides the constraints on the amplitude of the solution which is not possible with the conjugate gradient least square algorithm alone.

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Optimal ANC System Arrangement Based on Complete System Analyses Applying COSMOL Multiphysics and Matlab
Time: 6:00 am


Abstract ID: 1824

In real active noise control system implementation, the arrangement of secondary sources and error microphones have significant effect on the performance of the system. Analytical and experimental ways are usually combined to determine the best system layout. In this paper, we use COSMOL Multiphysics to accurately model the acoustic environment in enclosures with the real measured dimensions and parameters. Matlab is adopted to simulate the basic active noise control algorithms. The combined simulation results are used to decide the optimal system layout of the real ANC system. Experiments are conducted on a real ANC system with EVAL-21489-EZLITE from ADI to validate the analyzed and simulation results.

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Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with arbitrary elastic boundary conditions
Time: 7:20 am

Author: Zhenshuai Wan

Abstract ID: 1985

boundary conditions are In this paper, an improved Fourier series method is presented for the free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with arbitrary elastic conditions. The stiffness value of the restraining springs is determined as required to simulate the arbitrary elastic boundary conditions. The exact solution of plates with arbitrary elastic boundary conditions is solved by the introduced supplementary func-tions. The matrix eigenvalue equation of plates is derived by using boundary conditions and the governing equations. Compared with exist methods, the presented method can be easily applied to most of plate vibration problems with different boundary conditions. To validate the accuracy of the presented method, numerical simulations with different boundary conditions are presented.presented.

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Active noise control without secondary path modeling: algorithm and implementation
Time: 7:40 pm

Author: Xing Ren

Abstract ID: 1995

Active noise control (ANC) has been intensively studied for decades. The most classical ANC algorithm should be the filtered-x least mean square (FxLMS) algorithm, which needs the model of the secondary path to work. Thus, the residual error of the ANC system is closely related to the preciseness of the secondary path model. In many applications, the secondary path is often time-varying. Therefore, off-line identification of the secondary path is not applicable. However, on-line identification often requires an additional white noise as a stimulating signal of the secondary path, which will deteriorate the final noise reduction effect. This paper proposes an improved artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for ANC system, which does not require identification of the secondary path. In order to guarantee the convergence of the algorithm and accelerate the convergence speed, this paper introduces a variable forgetting factor into the fitness function, and improves the traditional ABC algorithm by integrating LMS algorithm into the ABC algorithm. A single channel ANC system equipped with an FPGA hardware platform is set up in an anechoic chamber, and experiments show that the proposed algorithm can produce a satisfactory noise reduction effect without modeling the secondary path.

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Implementation of coherence-based-selection multi-channel wireless ANC in headphone
Time: 8:40 pm

Author: Xiaoyi Shen

Abstract ID: 2004

Active noise control (ANC) headphone is widely used to attenuate the noise around human’ s ear. The microphone mounted on the conventional ANC headphones collected the mixed reference signals when more than one noise sources are often present in the surrounding. In this case, the uncorrelated noise sources involved in the mixed reference usually deteriorate the noise reduction performance of the ANC headphones. To solve this problem, wireless microphones are proposed to install close to each potential noise source in the environment.  The microphones pick up the clean reference signals and transmit them to the ANC controller embedded in the headphones with time-advance wirelessly. Every reference signal selected by a coherence-based-selection algorithm is provided individual control filter in each ear. Each control filter updated by using a single clean reference offers better noise reduction performance for ANC headphones. Furthermore, numerical simulations and real-time experiment results in this paper demonstrate the improvement of the proposed method compared with conventional ANC headphones.

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Nonlinear active noise control using decoupled functional link artificial neural network
Time: 8:20 pm

Author: Hakjun Lee

Abstract ID: 2254

Active noise control system has received its attention in various technical field such as headphone, motor vehicle, etc. Meanwhile, filtered-x least mean square (FxLMS) algorithm is conventional linear algorithm used in active noise control system. It assumes that acoustic path from the noise source and control source to target area are linear. However, in actual system, the secondary path including a D/A converter, an amplifier, and an actuator may exhibits nonlinear distortion like saturation effects. To cope with this nonlinear effects, functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) has been proposed. FLANN uses nonlinear function expansion filter with FxLMS based control algorithm to control the nonlinear effect. In this paper, noise reduction performance and convergence speed are improved by modifying the conventional FLANN algorithm by decoupling the linear and nonlinear part of noise signal.

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Multichannel simplified fast transversal filter algorithms for active noise control
Time: 8:00 pm

Author: Lei Wang

Abstract ID: 2793

In recent years, more attention has been paid to the performance of algorithm in active noise control (ANC). Compared with filtered-x LMS (FxLMS) algorithm based on stochastic gradient descent, filtered-x RLS (FXRLS) algorithm has faster convergence speed and better tracking performance at the cost of high computational complexity. In order to reduce the computation, fast transversal filter (FTF) algorithm can be used in ANC system. In this paper,  simplified multi-channel FXFTF algorithms are presented, and the convergence speed and noise reduction performance of different multichannel algorithms are simulated and compared, and the numerical stability of the algorithms are analyzed.

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Regularized spherical harmonics-domain spatial active noise cancellation in a reverberant room
Time: 2:40 pm

Author: Shoken Kaneko

Abstract ID: 2820

Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) at a target area in an open space, as opposed to cancellation in the ears through headphones, can lead to future applications. For instance, a personal acoustic environment in an airplane seat or inside a car, or a quiet zone in a noisy shared workspace can be possible using such open-space ANC without any uncomfortable on-body audio equipment. Recent advancements reinforce the practicality of such systems. However, regularization of the cancellation signal has been a crucial challenge in open-space ANC as it causes amplification of noise at locations away from the target area. This work presents a spherical harmonics-domain feed-forward spatial ANC method with a room-wide global cost function to address this issue. This room-wide global cost function is used for optimizing the set of regularization hyperparameters, while at run time only local information captured by a microphone array surrounding the target listening zone is required. Numerical experiments applying the proposed method in a simulated reverberant room show the effectiveness of the proposed method in creating a specific zone of silence with low to moderate noise amplification in the rest of the room.

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