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08.03 Tire Noise, Part 2

Method for Localisation of Sound Sources and Aggregation to an Acoustic Center
Time: 7:20 am

Author: Yannik Weber

Abstract ID: 1689

Preliminary work by the IPEK - Institute of Product Engineering at KIT has shown that the simulated pass-by measurement for exterior noise homologation of vehicles has relevant optimization potential: the measurement can be carried out in smaller halls and with a smaller measurement setup than required by the norm and thus with less construction cost and effort. A prerequisite for this however is the scaling of the entire setup. For the scaling in turn, the sound sources of the vehicle must be combined to a single point sound source - the acoustic centre. Previous approaches for conventional drives assume a static centre in the front part of the vehicle. For complex drive topologies, e.g. hybrid drives, and unsteady driving conditions, however, this assumption is not valid anymore. Therefore, with the help of an acoustic camera, a method for localizing the dominant sound sources of the vehicle and a software-based application for summarizing them to an acoustic centre were developed. The method is able to take into account stationary, unsteady and sudden events in the calculation of the acoustic centre, which is moved as a result. Using substitute sound sources and two vehicles, the method and the used measurement technology were examined and verified for their applicability.

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NEMO project: acoustic detection of vehicle engine speed
Time: 6:00 am

Author: Truls Berge

Abstract ID: 1718

As part of the EU Horizon2020 project NEMO, SINTEF has developed an algorithm to detect the engine speed of passing vehicles. Some road vehicles can emit abnormal high noise levels or high levels of exhaust gases in urban conditions. The high noise level can be related to aggressive driving (high acceleration and high engine speed), to a modified or malfunctioning exhaust system, or to other vehicle defects. It is well-known that many motorcycles or mopeds often are equipped with non-original exhaust mufflers, giving high noise levels that can be a nuisance to the community. In the NEMO project, the detecting of so-called high emitters (HE) is essential to reduce the impact of such vehicles on the environment and public health. To enable to categorize HE vehicle based on the driving behaviour, it is necessary to detect both acceleration and corresponding engine speed. The paper describes the principle of the algorithm developed and results from testing on vehicles, including a motorcycle. This test shows that it is feasible to estimate the engine speed, also when the vehicle is accelerating, if the number of cylinders is available for the estimation. Further testing of the algorithm is planned within the NEMO project.

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Design and simulation of Helmholtz resonator assembly used to attenuate tire acoustic cavity resonance noise
Time: 8:40 pm

Author: Wei Zhao

Abstract ID: 1706

Tire acoustic cavity resonance noise (TACRN) is a typical annoying lower-frequency interior noise of a passenger car. The widely used attenuating method of attaching the porous sound absorption material in tire cavity can reduce TACRN effectively, but causes the increase of tire-wheel assembly weight and cost, also the poor durability. Additionally, the Helmholtz resonator (HR) is also used in the wheel of some cars although having only narrow effective band. The existing investigation shows that the frequency of TACRN varies with the car speed and load and also has the split characteristics. The change of TACRN frequency causes a certain difficulty to suppress TACRN effectively. Aiming at this problem, in this paper, TACRN frequency range of a specific tire cavity under different operating conditions is first calculated and analyzed. Then, for a specific aluminum alloy wheel, a HR assembly including several HRs is designed to make the natural frequencies of HR assembly cover the TACRN frequencies. Finally, the reduction effect of TACRN is simulated and evaluated by comparing the sound fields in tire cavity with/without HR assembly under same volume velocity sound source. This work is helpful for attenuating TACRN effectively under the changing operating conditions.

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Comparison of roadwheel and roadway noise generated by a mono-pitch tire tread
Time: 7:20 pm

Author: Richard Ruhala

Abstract ID: 2455

Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN, aka tire-road noise or tyre-road noise) is most efficiently measured in acoustically controlled laboratories with large diameter roadwheels (drums) that have surface treatments which replicate some pavement properties, especially when comparing the acoustic performance of different tires.  However, it is not clear how closely the roadwheel replicates the road surface, including differences that include road curvature and mechanical impedance of pavements.  On the other hand, measuring on a moving vehicle with a microphone array presents it own set of challenges.  In this study, a Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) method is used to measure tire/pavement interaction noise on roadways and roadwheels with similar smooth pavement and rough pavement properties.  Sound intensity fields, overall sound power levels, and sound pressure levels are reconstructed very close to the tire surface.  An experimental passenger car tire with a mono-pitch tread is used in this study.  The experimental tire has three circumferential grooves and 64 equally spaced transverse grooves cut into the tread.  Differences in sound fields and levels between roadway and roadwheel test conditions for this tire are shown.

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A multibody dynamic model for predicting operational load spectra of dual clutch transmissions
Time: 8:20 pm

Author: Enes Timur Ozdemir

Abstract ID: 2609

In this paper, a generalized nonlinear time-varying multibody dynamic model of dual clutch transmissions (DCT) is presented. The model consists of clutches, shafts, gears and synchronizers, and can be used to model any DCT architecture. A nonlinear clutch model is used to determine the transmitted power to the transmission at any speed and clutch temperature. The clutch can be a single- or multi-plate clutch and can operate in a wet or dry-clutch configuration. A combined kinematic and powerflow simulation enables calculation of  gear, shaft, bearing and clutch quasi-static loads as well as gear mesh frequencies following a duty cycle as the input. For the corresponding Linear-Time-Invariant (LTI) system model, natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem. The modal summation technique is used to determine the steady state forced vibration response of the system. For the corresponding NTV system, Newmark’s time-step marching based integration is used to determine both the steady state and transient forced vibration response of the system. The DCT model is exercised using a common transmission architecture operating at several different operating conditions. The resulting impact of changing operational conditions on gear and bearing loads as well as dynamic transmission error spectra are demonstrated.

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Simulation of the frequency split of the fundamental air cavity mode of a loaded and rolling tire by using steady-state transport analysis
Time: 8:00 pm

Author: Won Hong Choi

Abstract ID: 2889

It has been found that when a tire deforms due to loading, the fundamental air cavity mode splits into two due to the break in geometrical symmetry. The result is the creation of fore-aft and vertical acoustic modes near 200 Hz for typical passenger car tires. When those modes couple with structural, circumferential modes having similar natural frequencies, the oscillatory force transmitted to the suspension can be expected to increase, hence causing increased interior noise levels. Further, when the tire rotates, the frequency split is enlarged owing to the Doppler effect resulting from the airflow within the tire cavity. The current research is focused on determining the influence of rotation speed on the frequency split by using FE simulation. In particular, the analysis was performed by using steady-state transport analysis which enables vibroacoustic analysis in a moving frame attached to tire in the frequency domain. The details of the modeling are described and results are given for a tire under different rotation speeds, presented in terms of dispersion curves that illustrate the interaction between structural and acoustical modes. The results are compared to those for static tires and tires spinning without translational velocity to highlight the effects of rolling.

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Experimental Observations in Tire Cavity Resonance and Interactions with Periodic Noise Components
Time: 7:40 pm

Author: Jordan Schimmoeller

Abstract ID: 3224

Tire cavity resonance is one of the major sources of tire-related in-cabin noise and vibration. It has gained more attention in recent years with the growth of the electric vehicle market. This is due to the absence of masking noise from the internal combustion engine and powertrain. Thus, the mitigation of this issue has become a critical task for tire and vehicle manufacturers. The excited cavity resonant frequency in an unloaded condition is typically between 170 – 220 Hz. However, multiple studies have shown that loading the tire will result in two dominant resonances transmitted into the cavity. Their corresponding mode shapes are typically described in terms of the direction of their characteristic acoustic pressure variation i.e., fore-aft cavity mode and vertical cavity mode. As the tire’s rotational speed increases, in-cabin measurements show that the tire cavity resonant frequencies separate from each other. Further, interactions with the periodic component of tire noise at certain speeds are also observed. These periodic components can be attributed to tire non-uniformities and tread pattern related excitation. This interaction is perceived as tonal noise inside the vehicle cabin at discrete speeds. This work presents experimental results summarizing these findings.

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