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05.02 Airframe Noise

High Lift Device Modifications for Reducing Airport Noise – A Review
Time: 3:00 pm

Author: Benjamin Reydel

Abstract ID: 1610

Aircraft noise has been one of the top environmental issues at and near airports across the country because of its negative impact on communities. The growth of the nation’s air transportation system is restricted predominantly due to regulations on limiting aircraft noise generated around airports. Reducing aircraft noise will lead to wider community acceptance of new or larger airports, lower airline operating costs by reducing noise quota fees, and increase air traffic growth through operating more flights. One of the most significant contributors to aircraft noise, structural vibrations caused by air flow across its frame, are high lift devices. A review of high lift devices, such as flaps, and methods to reduce their noise levels will be presented. Solution reviews will focus on reducing flap trailing-edge scattering and flap side-edge vortices.

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Trailing-edge noise reduction of a wing by a surface modification
Time: 2:00 pm

Author: Dragan Kozulovic

Abstract ID: 2326

There is an increased emphasis on reducing airframe noise in the last decades. Airframe noise is sound generated by the interaction of a turbulent flow with the aircraft geometry, and significantly contributes to the overall noise production during the landing phase.  One examples of airframe noise is the noise generated at a wing’s trailing edge, i.e., trailing-edge noise. In this contribution, we numerically explore the local application of riblets for the purpose of trailing-edge noise reduction. Two configurations are studied: i) a clean NACA0012 wing section as a reference, and ii) the same configuration with riblets installed at the wing’s aft part. The numerical investigation follows a hybrid computational aeroacoustics approach, where the time-average flow is studied by means of RANS. Noise sources are generated by means of  a stochastic approach called Fast Random Particle Mesh method. The results show a deceleration of the flow behind the riblets. Furthermore, the turbulent kinetic energy indicates increased unsteadiness behind the riblets which is shifted away from the wall due to the presence of the riblets. Lastly, the sound sources are investigated by means of the 3D Lamb-vector, which indicates a slight reduction in magnitude near the trailing edge.

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Parametric optimization of aircraft arrival trajectories for aviation noise mitigation using BADA4 performance model
Time: 3:20 pm

Author: Ameya Behere

Abstract ID: 2783

Successful mitigation of aviation noise is a key enabler for sustainable aviation growth. A key focus of this effort is the noise arising from aircraft arrival operations. Arrival operations are characterized by the use of high-lift devices, deployment of landing gear, and low thrust levels, which results in the airframe being the major component of noise. In order to optimize for arrival noise, management of the flap schedule and gear deployment is crucial. This research aims to create an optimization framework for evaluating various aircraft trajectories in terms of their noise impact. A parametric representation of the aircraft arrival trajectory will be created to allow for the variation of aircraft’s flap schedule. The Federal Aviation Administration’s Aviation Environmental Design Tool will be used to simulate the aircraft trajectory and performance, and to compute the noise metrics. Specifically, the latest performance model from EUROCONTROL called “Base of Aircraft Data – Family 4” will be used. This performance model contains higher fidelity modeling of aircraft aerodynamics and other characteristics which allows for better parametric variation.

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Aeroacoustic analysis of slat tones
Time: 2:40 pm

Author: Hasan Kamliya Jawahar

Abstract ID: 3202

Experimental measurements were carried out to assess the aeroacoustic characteristics of a 30P30N high-lift device, with particular attention to slat tonal noise. Three different types of slat modifications, namely slat cove filler, serrated slat cusp, and slat finlets have been experimentally examined. The results are presented for an angle of attack of ? = 18 at a free-stream velocity of U = 30 m/s, which corresponds to a chord-based Reynolds number of Re = 7 x 10. The unsteady surface pressure near the slat region and far-field noise were made simultaneously to gain a deeper understanding of the slat noise generation mechanisms. The nature of the low-frequency broadband hump and the slat tones were investigated using higher-order statistical approaches for the baseline 30P30N and modified slat configurations. Continuous wavelet transform of the unsteady surface pressure fluctuations along with secondary wavelet transform of the broadband hump and tones were carried out to analyze the intermittent events induced by the tone generating resonant mechanisms. Stochastic analysis of the wavelet coefficient modulus of the surface pressure fluctuations was also carried out to demonstrate the inherent differences of different tonal frequencies. An understanding into the nature of the noise generated from the slat will help design the new generation of quite high-lift devices.

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Aeroacustic and aerodynamic investigating of a new airfoil trailing-edge noise-suppressing design
Time: 2:20 pm

Author: Yehia Salama

Abstract ID: 1890

In this work, a new noise suppressing airfoil trailing-edge design, termed “finned serrations”, is presented and numerically evaluated. This brand-new approach consists of the superposition of two different noise suppressing morphological features inspired by the wings of the owl. Embedded Large Eddy Simulations are employed in tandem with the Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings model to predict and analyze the design aerodynamics and aeroacoustics and compare the obtained output to that of a flat trailing-edge airfoil. Finned serrations are shown to combine the effects of having finlets and serrations. Because of the bluntness of the serration roots, the airfoil is subject to vortex shedding, while the flow is generally decorrelated in the spanwise direction, thanks to the channeling effect of the finlets. The turbulent kinetic energy distribution close to the airfoil trailing-edge surface is also significantly altered, as the more energetic eddies are convected away from the airfoil surface. Lastly, mixing across the airfoil surface is improved, and the average size of the turbulent coherent structures near the airfoil trailing-edge is reduced. The presented results suggest that the coupling of different noise-suppressing mechanisms is a promising path to explore, with the goal of coming up with new, quieter trailing-edge configurations.

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