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01.01 Fan and Turbomachinery Noise, Part 1

Optimization of Low Noise Blade of Small Axial Fan at Low Reynolds Number
Time: 6:00 am

Author: Peixun YU

Abstract ID: 1380

A multidisciplinary optimization design to simultaneously enhance the aeroacoustic and aerodynamic performance of an cooling fan is performed. The flow analysis of the cooling fan is conducted by solving three dimensional steady-state RANS equations with shear-stress transport turbulence model. Based on the results of the steady flow, aeroacoustic analysis is performed by using the Hanson and Brooks model. A multi-objective optimization is performed to simultaneously improve the efficiency and reduce the sound pressure level through an improved non-dominated sorting gentic algorithm. A Kriging surrogate model is used to approximate the function value while reducing computational cost. Series of optimum designs on the pareto front yielded increases in efficiency and decreases in the sound pressure level compared to the reference design. Through numerical analysis and experimental test, the aerodynamic efficiency is increased by 5% and the total sound pressure level is reduced by 4dB without loss of air volume for the selected optimized cooling fan. The thining of rotor boundary layer and inward load shift are the main factors to improve aerodynamic efficiency and reduce noise of the cooling fan.

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Aeroacoustic simulation of a cross-flow fan using lattice Boltzmann method with a RANS model
Time: 6:20 am

Author: Kazuya Kusano

Abstract ID: 1578

The present study developed an unsteady RANS approach based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which can perform direct aeroacoustic simulations of low-speed fans at lower computational cost compared with the conventional LBM-LES approach. In this method, the k-? turbulence model is incorporated into the LBM flow solver, where the transport equations of k and ? are also computed by the lattice Boltzmann method, similar to the Navier-Stokes equations. In addition, moving boundaries such as fan rotors are considered by a direct-forcing immersed boundary method. This numerical method was validated in a two-dimensional simulation of a cross-flow fan. As a result, the simulation was able to capture an eccentric vortex structure in the rotor, and the pressure rise by the work of the rotor can be reproduced. Also, the peak sound of the blade passing frequency can be successfully predicted by the present method. Furthermore, the simulation results showed that the peak sound is generated by the interaction between the rotor blade and the flow around the tongue part of the casing.

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Reduced order model analysis to identify possible aerodynamic noise sources of small axial fan: POD and CNN
Time: 6:40 am

Author: Wataru Obayashi

Abstract ID: 2507

This paper reports computational analysis of location and strength of sound source of the noise generated by a small axial fan widely used as an air-cooling system. High-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations with high-resolution compact scheme are conducted with an implicit Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method on a HPC system and the resultant large-scale data confirms existence of unsteady vortex structures and their interactions around the impellers, boss and casing of the fan. To identify location and strength of the sound sources, reduced order model analysis is conducted for the distribution of pressure fluctuations in space and time. Snapshot POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) analysis both in time and in circumferential direction, together with conventional FFT analysis, identifies location and strength of the sound sources. In addition, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is attempted, which shows more physical mode decomposition and separates some of the important features shown in the snapshot POD analysis. The study shows that the two data-mining techniques considered here identify possible aerodynamic noise sources of the axial fan clearly in comparison to those in the previous studies.

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Numerical and experimental investigation into effects of tip-rake shape of axial-flow fan on its flow and noise performances
Time: 7:00 am

Author: Seo Yoon Ryu

Abstract ID: 2667

As the potential of computational resources dramatically increases, the so-called computer-aided engineering readily replaces experiment-based engineering in related industrial fields. In this study, the virtual fan flow and acoustic performance testers are developed using the RANS solvers and the acoustic analogy. Two types of forward-curved centrifugal fans are selected for numerical and experimental investigations into its flow and acoustic performances. First, to experimentally evaluate the performances of the centrifugal fan units, their P-Q curves and sound power levels are measured using a fan flow performance tester and a semi-anechoic chamber, respectively. Second, the virtual fan flow and acoustic performance testers are constructed using the RANS solvers and the acoustic analogy based on the FW-H equation and CFD method. The validity of the current virtual methods is confirmed by comparing the prediction results with the measured ones. During the validation, the effects of the wall functions, y+ distribution, and turbulence models on predicted flow performance accuracy are closely examined. The effects of the integral surfaces used for the computation of the FW-H equations are also assessed on the predicted spectral levels of sound pressure.

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